Exercise leads to sharper thinking and a healthier brain: Study
To build a better brain, just exercise. That’s the message of two important new studies of how physical activity changes our minds.
In one, scientists delved into the lives, DNA and cognition of thousands of people to show that regular exercise leads to much sharper thinking.
Another study helps explain why exercise is good for the brain. Researchers found that just six minutes of strenuous exertion quintupled production of a neurochemical known to be essential for lifelong brain health.
The studies arrive at a moment when some recent, widely discussed research has been raising doubts about the extent to which exercise bolsters thinking and memory. But the new findings, which analyzed data for almost 350,000 people, make the strongest case yet that regular exercise can improve cognition.
These studies reinforce the idea that “absolutely, exercise is one of the best things you can do” for your brain, said Matthieu Boisgontier, an associate professor at the University of Ottawa, who oversaw one of the studies.
Multiple, large-scale epidemiological studies have linked more exercise to better memories and thinking skills and less risk for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s.
Qualms have lingered, though, about just how potent exercise really is for our brains.
A study published last year of more than 500 older people found little cognitive benefit from 18 months of regular walking or other light exercise, while a major review of past research published in March pointed out that many human studies of exercise and cognition have been too small or otherwise limited to show persuasive benefits for brain health from working out.
The study from Boisgontier and his colleagues, published last week in Scientific Reports, uses a novel and complex type of statistical analysis to go beyond traditional observational research and firmly establish that exercise does improve your brain skills.
The interplay of exercise and thinking was strong enough to indicate causation, Boisgontier said, meaning, in this big study, the right exercise resulted in sharper minds.
Second new study
The first inklings that exercise remodels brains and minds came decades ago in mouse studies. Active, running animals in these experiments scored much higher on rodent intelligence tests than sedentary mice, and their brain tissues teemed with elevated levels of a substance known as brain-derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF, often referred to as “Miracle-Gro” for the brain.
The other new study, although comparatively small, may help explain how exercise keeps your brain healthy.
In this experiment, 12 healthy, young people rode an exercise bike at a very leisurely pace for 90 minutes, followed by six minutes of intervals consisting of 40 seconds of all-out pedaling interspersed with 20 seconds of rest. Before, during and after each session, researchers tracked BDNF in people’s blood.
They also measured levels of lactate. Muscles release lactate, often called lactic acid, during exercise, especially if it’s strenuous. It can travel to and be sucked up by the brain as fuel.
Past studies in mice suggest this shift in brain fueling is what jump-starts the creation of BDNF. When animals’ brains begin slurping up lactate in lieu of sugar, they start pumping out more BDNF and the mice soon blossom into rodent brainiacs.
Now, the researchers found indications of something similar happening in people. During easy riding, lactate levels rose slightly in people’s blood after about 30 minutes, as did the amounts of BDNF in their blood. But during and after the six minutes of hard, fast pedaling, lactate soared and so did BDNF.
What these results suggest is that “exercise is good for your brain and that exercising longer, or particularly, harder, may maximize the benefits,” said Travis Gibbons, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of British Columbia at Okanagan, who led the study.
Source: The Washington Post